When I assign static IPs should they be within the DHCP lease range our should I leave some space and put them outside? For example, if my DHCP lease ranges is 192.168.1.20-199 should give static assignments below .20 or between .20 and .199?
Static IPs should be outside the DHCP lease range to avoid potential conflicts. For your example, below .20 or above .199.
If you are setting the static IP on the device so it no longer talks to the DHCP Server, it needs to be outside the DHcP Pool.
If by “Static” you mean a reservation in the DHCP server, then it doesn’t matter technically, but depending on the environment it is often better to put them outside the range. Also, specific DHCP Servers might require reservations not be in the pool, and specific others might require they be in the pool. I’ve seen both but don’t remember their names.
I like to change my dynamic range to .150-.249. This gives me 100 addresses for DHCP assignment. I start at .150 because I use Proxmox for the hypervisor and I like my VM number to match the static IP.
I set up a lot of residential home networks and use this schema:
Gateway - .1
DNS - .2
Network Controller - .3
Infrastructure switches - .4 - .9
Infrastructure WAPs - .10 - .19
Infrastructure other - .20 - .49
Security Cams - .50 - .79
VM - .100 - .149
DHCP Range .150 - .249
Most of my users don’t have VMs, dedicated DNS, or a ton of devices but it’s been helpful to keep it standardized. I’d recommend coming up with a layout before you implement your network. Good luck!